INTERNET

Assalamua’laikum

Pagi,Siang,Malam

Bonjour~

Author balik dari kesunyian (?) yanng akan membawa keramaian(??) #abaikan

Ok,karena ini tuntutan tugas dan sekitar beberapa persen punya niat,author bakal ngasih tau sama kalian para jangkrik krik-krik saking sepinya yang ngeliat blog ini,hehe :’3 apa isi tugasnya:v mueheh

semua isi post ini hanya kutipan dari blog-blog terkenal,bukan tulisan tangan sendiri,harap dimaklumi,

Terima Kasih dan Happy Reading

1)PENGENALAN INTERNET

Pada pergantian abad, informasi, termasuk akses ke Internet, akan menjadi dasar untuk pribadi, ekonomi, dan politik kemajuan. Nama populer untuk Internet adalah informasi superhighway. Apakah Anda ingin menemukan berita keuangan terakhir, menelusuri katalog perpustakaan, pertukaran informasi dengan rekan-rekan, atau bergabung dalam sebuah debat politik yang hidup, internet adalah alat yang akan membawa Anda melampaui telepon, faks, dan komputer terisolasi untuk informasi jaringan berkembang perbatasan.
Internet suplemen alat tradisional Anda gunakan untuk mengumpulkan informasi, data Graphics, Berita dan sesuai dengan orang lain. Digunakan terampil, Internet menyusut dunia dan membawa informasi, keahlian, dan pengetahuan di hampir setiap subjek dibayangkan langsung ke komputer Anda.

1.a) Pengertian Internet

Link Internet adalah jaringan komputer di seluruh dunia sehingga pengguna dapat berbagi sumber daya dan berkomunikasi satu sama lain. Beberapa komputer, memiliki akses langsung ke semua fasilitas di internet seperti universitas. Dan komputer lain, misalnya yang milik pribadi, memiliki hubungan tidak langsung melalui penyedia layanan komersial, yang menawarkan beberapa atau semua fasilitas internet. Untuk terhubung ke Internet, Anda harus melalui pemasok jasa. Banyak pilihan yang ditawarkan dengan harga bulanan. Tergantung pada opsi yang dipilih, waktu akses dapat bervariasi.
Internet adalah apa yang kita sebut metanetwork, yaitu, jaringan jaringan yang mencakup seluruh dunia. Tidak mungkin untuk memberikan hitungan yang tepat dari jumlah jaringan atau pengguna yang terdiri dari Internet, tetapi mudah mencapai ribuan dan jutaan masing-masing. Internet mempekerjakan satu set protokol standar yang memungkinkan untuk berbagi sumber daya di antara berbagai jenis komputer yang berkomunikasi satu sama lain pada jaringan. Standar-standar ini, kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Internet Protocol Suite, adalah aturan bahwa pengembang mematuhi ketika membuat fungsi baru untuk Internet.
Internet juga apa yang kita sebut sistem terdistribusi; tidak ada arsip pusat. Secara teknis, tidak ada yang berjalan Internet. Sebaliknya, Internet terdiri dari ribuan jaringan yang lebih kecil. Internet berkembang dan berkembang sebagai banyak penggunanya menemukan cara-cara baru untuk membuat, menampilkan dan mengambil informasi yang merupakan Internet.

2.Internet & Pemanfaatannya

2.a)Sejarah Internet

Sejarah & Perkembangan Internet:

Dalam masa pertumbuhan, Internet awalnya disusun oleh Departemen Pertahanan sebagai cara untuk melindungi sistem komunikasi pemerintah dalam hal serangan militer. Jaringan asli, dijuluki ARPANet (untuk Advanced Research Projects Agency yang berkembang itu) berkembang menjadi saluran komunikasi antara kontraktor, personil militer, dan peneliti universitas yang berkontribusi terhadap proyek ARPA.
Jaringan ini menggunakan satu set protokol standar untuk menciptakan cara yang efektif bagi orang-orang untuk berkomunikasi dan berbagi data satu sama lain.
Popularitas ARPAnet terus menyebar di antara peneliti, dan di tahun 1980 National Science Foundation, yang NSFNet, terkait beberapa komputer kecepatan tinggi, mengambil alih apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Internet.
Pada akhir 1980-an, ribuan jaringan bekerja sama berpartisipasi dalam Internet.
Pada tahun 1991, Computing UU US High Performance mendirikan NREN (National Research & Education Network). Tujuan NREN adalah untuk mengembangkan dan memelihara jaringan berkecepatan tinggi untuk penelitian dan pendidikan, dan untuk menyelidiki penggunaan komersial untuk Internet.
Sisanya, seperti kata mereka, adalah sejarah dalam pembuatan. Internet telah ditingkatkan melalui perkembangan layanan seperti Gopher dan World Wide Web.
Meskipun internet secara dominan dianggap sebagai jaringan riset berorientasi, terus tumbuh sebagai sumber informasi, kreatif, dan komersial setiap hari dan di seluruh dunia.

2.b)Siapa yang Membayar untuk Internet?

Tidak ada jawaban yang jelas untuk pertanyaan ini karena Internet bukan satu “hal”, itu banyak hal. Tidak ada satu lembaga pusat ada yang biaya pengguna internet individu. Sebaliknya, individu dan lembaga yang menggunakan Internet membayar penyedia layanan Internet lokal atau regional untuk bagian mereka dari layanan. Dan pada gilirannya, para penyedia layanan Internet yang lebih kecil mungkin membeli layanan dari jaringan lebih besar. Jadi pada dasarnya, setiap orang yang menggunakan internet dalam beberapa cara membayar untuk bagian dari itu.

2.c)Apa yang membuat internet bekerja?

Hal yang unik tentang internet adalah bahwa hal itu memungkinkan banyak komputer yang berbeda untuk menghubungkan dan berbicara satu sama lain. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena satu set standar, yang dikenal sebagai protokol, yang mengatur transmisi data melalui jaringan: TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). Kebanyakan orang yang menggunakan Internet tidak begitu tertarik pada rincian yang terkait dengan protokol ini. Mereka, bagaimanapun, ingin tahu apa yang bisa mereka lakukan di Internet dan bagaimana melakukannya secara efektif.’

2.d)Klien

Perangkat Internet paling populer beroperasi sebagai sistem client / server. Anda menjalankan sebuah program yang disebut klien Web. Ini bagian dari perangkat lunak menampilkan dokumen untuk Anda dan melaksanakan permintaan Anda. Jika diperlukan untuk menyambung ke jenis lain dari layanan – mengatakan, untuk mendirikan sebuah sesi Telnet, atau untuk men-download file – klien Web Anda akan mengurus ini, juga. Anda menghubungkan Web client (atau “berbicara”) ke server Web untuk meminta informasi atas nama Anda.

Web server adalah komputer yang menjalankan jenis lain dari perangkat lunak Web yang menyediakan data, atau “menyajikan” sumber informasi kepada klien Web Anda.

Semua alat internet dasar – termasuk Telnet, FTP, Gopher, dan World Wide Web – didasarkan pada kerja sama klien dan satu atau lebih server. Dalam setiap kasus, Anda berinteraksi dengan program klien dan mengelola rincian bagaimana data disajikan kepada Anda atau cara di mana Anda dapat mencari sumber daya. Pada gilirannya, klien berinteraksi dengan satu atau lebih server di mana informasi berada. Server menerima permintaan, memprosesnya, dan mengirimkan hasilnya, tanpa harus mengetahui rincian sistem komputer Anda, karena perangkat lunak klien pada sistem komputer Anda menangani rincian.
Keuntungan dari klien / server model terletak pada mendistribusikan karya sehingga setiap alat bisa fokus atau mengkhususkan diri pada tugas-tugas tertentu: server melayani informasi kepada banyak pengguna sedangkan perangkat lunak klien untuk setiap pengguna menangani antarmuka dan rincian lainnya pengguna individu dari permintaan dan penilaiannya

3) Beberapa Aplikasi Internet beserta linknya (mohon maaf ketahuan copasnya:D)

Network managers
Connman — Daemon for managing internet connections within embedded devices running the Linux operating system. Comes with a command-line client, plus Enlightenment, GTK and Dmenu clients are available.
https://connman.net/ || connman
netctl — Simple and robust tool to manage network connections via profiles. Intended for use with systemd.
https://projects.archlinux.org/netctl.git/ || netctl
NetworkManager — Manager that provides wired, wireless, mobile broadband and OpenVPN detection with configuration and automatic connection.
http://projects.gnome.org/NetworkManager/ || networkmanager
systemd-networkd — Native systemd daemon that manages network configuration. It includes support for basic network configuration through udev and networkd. The service is available with systemd > 210.
http://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/systemd-networkd.service.html || systemd
Wicd — Wireless and wired connection manager with few dependencies. Comes with an ncurses interface, and a GTK interface wicd-gtk is available.
http://wicd.sourceforge.net/ || wicd
Web browsers
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of web browsers.

Console
ELinks — Advanced and well-established feature-rich text mode web browser (Links fork, barely supported since 2009).
http://elinks.or.cz/ || elinks
Links — Text WWW browser. Includes a console version [links] similar to Lynx, and a graphical X-window/framebuffer version [links -g] (must be compiled in, Arch has both) with CSS, image rendering, pull-down menus.
http://links.twibright.com/ || links
Lynx — Text browser for the World Wide Web.
http://lynx.isc.org || lynx
retawq — Interactive, multi-threaded network client (web browser) for text terminals.
http://retawq.sourceforge.net/ || retawq
w3m — Pager/text-based web browser. It has vim-like keybindings, and is able to display images. It has javascript support too.
http://w3m.sourceforge.net/ || w3m
Graphical
“Mainstream”
Chromium — Web browser developed by Google, the open source project behind Google Chrome.
http://www.chromium.org/ || chromium
Firefox — Extensible browser from Mozilla based on Gecko with fast rendering.
https://mozilla.com/firefox || firefox
Opera — Highly customizable browser with focuses on an adherence to web rendering standards.
http://opera.com || opera
Webkit-based
Arora — Cross-platform web browser built using QtWebKit. Development stopped in January 2012.
https://code.google.com/p/arora/ || arora
dwb — Lightweight, highly customizable web browser based on the WebKit engine with vi-like shortcuts and tiling layouts.
http://portix.bitbucket.org/dwb/ || dwb
Epiphany — Browser which uses the WebKit rendering engine, part of gnome.
http://projects.gnome.org/epiphany/ || epiphany
Jumanji — Highly customizable and functional web browser.
http://pwmt.org/projects/jumanji || jumanji
Konqueror — Web browser based on Qt and KHTML, part of kdebase.
http://konqueror.org/ || kdebase-konqueror
Luakit — Highly configurable, micro-browser framework based on the WebKit engine and the GTK+ toolkit. It is very fast, extensible by Lua and licensed under the GNU GPLv3 license.
http://mason-larobina.github.com/luakit/ || luakit
Midori — Lightweight web browser based on GTK+ and WebKit.
http://twotoasts.de/index.php/midori/ || midori
Otter-browser — Browser aiming to recreate classic Opera (12.x) UI using Qt5.
http://otter-browser.org/ || otter-browser
QupZilla — New and very fast open source browser based on WebKit core, written in Qt framework.
http://www.qupzilla.com || qupzilla
Rekonq — WebKit-based web browser for KDE.
http://rekonq.kde.org/ || rekonq
Sb — Very lightweight WebKit-based browser that uses keybindings to perform most things the URL bar would usually do.
https://github.com/mutantturkey/sb/ || sb-git
Surf — Lightweight WebKit-based browser, which follows the suckless ideology (basically, the browser itself is a single C source file).
http://surf.suckless.org || surf
Uzbl — Group of web interface tools which adhere to the Unix philosophy.
http://uzbl.org/ || uzbl-browser
Vimb — Fast and lightweight vim like web browser based on the webkit web browser engine and the GTK toolkit.
https://fanglingsu.github.io/vimb/ || vimb
Vimprobable — Browser that behaves like the Vimperator plugin available for Mozilla Firefox. It is based on the WebKit engine and uses the GTK+ bindings.
http://sourceforge.net/apps/trac/vimprobable/ || vimprobable-git
Xombrero (formerly known as xxxterm) — Webkit minimalist web browser with sophisticated security features designed-in, BSD style.
https://opensource.conformal.com/wiki/xombrero || xombrero-git
Alternatives
Abaco — Multi-page graphical web browser for the Plan 9 OS.
http://lab-fgb.com/abaco/ || abaco
Conkeror — Highly programmable web browser, with Emacs-like keybindings, based on Mozilla’s XULRunner.
http://conkeror.org/ || conkeror-git
Dillo — Small, fast graphical web browser built on FLTK.
http://dillo.org/ || dillo
NetSurf — Featherweight browser written in C, notable for its lack of JavaScript support and fast rendering through its own custom rendering engine.
http://netsurf-browser.org || netsurf
Downloaders
FTP
FTP clients
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of FTP client software.

CurlFtpFS — Filesystem for acessing FTP hosts based on FUSE and libcurl.
http://curlftpfs.sourceforge.net/ || curlftpfs
FatRat — Download manager with support for HTTP, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent, RapidShare and more.
http://fatrat.dolezel.info/ || fatrat
FileZilla — Fast and reliable FTP, FTPS and SFTP client.
http://filezilla-project.org/ || filezilla
fuseftp — FTP filesystem written in Perl, using FUSE.
http://freshmeat.net/projects/fuseftp/ || fuseftp
gFTP — Multithreaded FTP client for Linux.
http://gftp.seul.org/ || gftp
LFTP — Sophisticated command-line FTP client.
http://lftp.yar.ru/ || lftp
tnftp — FTP client with several advanced features for NetBSD.
http://freecode.com/projects/tnftp || tnftp
Some file managers like Dolphin, GNOME Files and Thunar also provide FTP functionality.

FTP servers
bftpd — Small, easy-to-configure FTP server
http://bftpd.sourceforge.net/ || bftpd
glFTPd — GreyLine FTP daemon (highly configurable, no system accounts required)
http://glftpd.eu/ || not packaged? search in AUR
proFTPd — A secure and configurable FTP server
http://www.proftpd.org/ || proftpd
Pure-FTPd — Free (BSD-licensed), secure, production-quality and standard-compliant FTP server.
http://www.pureftpd.org/project/pure-ftpd || pure-ftpd
vsftpd — Lightweight, stable and secure FTP server for UNIX-like systems.
https://security.appspot.com/vsftpd.html || vsftpd
BitTorrent clients
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of BitTorrent clients.

Console
Command line / backend
Can be used as-is via command line, but all have a choice of front-end options as well.

aria2 — Lightweight download utility that supports simultaneous adaptive downloading via HTTP(S), FTP, BitTorrent (DHT, PEX, MSE/PE) protocols and Metalink. It can run as a daemon controlled via a built-in JSON-RPC or XML-RPC interface.
http://aria2.sourceforge.net/ || aria2
MLDonkey — Multi-protocol P2P client that supports BitTorrent, HTTP, FTP, eDonkey and Direct Connect.
http://mldonkey.sourceforge.net/ || mldonkey
Transmission — Simple and easy-to-use BitTorrent client with a daemon version, GTK+, Qt GUI, web and CLI front-ends.
http://transmissionbt.com/ || transmission-cli (includes backend, daemon, command-line interface, and a Web UI interface)
Console Interface
rTorrent — Simple and lightweight ncurses BitTorrent client. Requires libtorrent backend.
http://libtorrent.rakshasa.no/ || rtorrent
Transmission — Simple and easy-to-use BitTorrent client with a daemon version, ncurses CLI. Requires transmission-cli backend.
http://transmissionbt.com/ || transmission-remote-cli
Graphical Interface
libtorrent-rasterbar backend
Deluge — User-friendly BitTorrent client written in PyGTK that can run as a daemon.
http://deluge-torrent.org/ || deluge
FatRat — Qt4 based download manager with support for HTTP, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent, rapidshare and more. Written in C++.
http://fatrat.dolezel.info/ || fatrat
qBittorrent — Open source (GPLv2) BitTorrent client that strongly resembles µtorrent.
http://qbittorrent.sourceforge.net/ || qbittorrent
Tribler — 4th generation file sharing system bittorrent client.
http://www.tribler.org || tribler
libktorrent backend
KGet — Download manager for KDE that supports HTTP(S), FTP and BitTorrent. Part of kdenetwork.
http://www.kde.org/applications/internet/kget/ || kdenetwork-kget
Ktorrent — Feature-rich BitTorrent client for KDE.
http://ktorrent.org/ || ktorrent
others
QTorrent — BitTorrent client written in PyQt3.
http://thegraveyard.org/qtorrent.php%5Bdead link 2012-09-20] || qtorrent
Tixati — P2P client that uses the BitTorrent protocol.
http://www.tixati.com || tixati
Transmission — Simple and easy-to-use BitTorrent client with daemon version, GTK+, Qt GUI, web and CLI front-ends.
http://transmissionbt.com/ || transmission-gtk transmission-qt transmission-remote-gtk (remote clients work with the daemon in the -cli package)
Vuze — Feature-rich BitTorrent client written in Java (formerly Azureus).
https://www.vuze.com/ || vuze
eDonkey clients
eDonkey is still the second-largest p2p network (see Internet Study 2008/2009).

See also Wikipedia:Comparison of eDonkey software.

aMule — Well-known eDonkey/Kad client with a daemon version and GTK+, web, and CLI front-ends.
http://www.amule.org/ || amule
KaMule — KDE graphical front-end for aMule.
http://kde-apps.org/content/show.php?content=150270 || kamule
Gnutella
Sharelin — Gnutella2 only client with a web UI.
http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/sharelin || Sharelin
Communication
Email clients
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of e-mail clients.

Console
alot — An experimental terminal MUA based on notmuch mail. It is written in python using the urwid toolkit.
https://github.com/pazz/alot || alot alot-git
Alpine — Fast, easy-to-use and Apache-licensed email client based on Pine.
https://washington.edu/alpine || alpine
Gnus — Email, NNTP and RSS client for Emacs.
http://gnus.org/ || emacs-gnus-git
S-nail — a mail processing system with a command syntax reminiscent of ed with lines replaced by messages. Provides the functionality of mailx and much more.
http://sourceforge.net/projects/s-nail/ || s-nail
mu/mu4e — Email indexer (mu) and client for emacs (mu4e). Xapian based for fast searches.
http://www.djcbsoftware.nl/code/mu/mu4e.html || mu
Mutt — Small but very powerful text-based mail client.
http://www.mutt.org/ || mutt
notmuch — A fast mail indexer built on top of xapian.
http://notmuchmail.org/ || notmuch notmuch-vim notmuch-mutt
Sup — CLI mail client with very fast searching, tagging, threading and GMail like operation.
http://supmua.org/ || sup
Wanderlust — Email client and news reader for Emacs.
http://www.gohome.org/wl/ || wanderlust
Graphical
Balsa — Simple and light email client that is part of the Gnome project.
http://pawsa.fedorapeople.org/balsa/ || balsa
Claws Mail — Lightweight GTK-based email client and news reader.
http://claws-mail.org/ || claws-mail
Evolution — Mature and feature-rich e-mail client used in GNOME by default. Part of gnome-extra.
http://projects.gnome.org/evolution/ || evolution
Geary — Simple desktop mail client built in Vala.
https://wiki.gnome.org/Apps/Geary || geary
Kmail — Mature and feature-rich email client. Part of kdepim.
http://kde.org/applications/internet/kmail/ || kdepim-kmail
Manitou Mail — Database-driven email system.
http://www.manitou-mail.org/ || manitou-mdx manitou-ui
Roundcubemail — Browser-based multilingual IMAP client with a native application-like user interface.
http://roundcube.net/ || roundcubemail
Sylpheed — Lightweight and user-friendly GTK+ email client.
http://sylpheed.sraoss.jp/en/ || sylpheed
Thunderbird — Feature-rich email client from Mozilla written in GTK+.
http://www.mozilla.org/thunderbird/ || thunderbird
Trojitá — Qt IMAP email client.
http://trojita.flaska.net/ || trojita
Instant messaging
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of instant messaging protocols.

This section lists all software with instant messaging support. Particularly, that are client and server applications.

Multi-protocol clients
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of instant messaging clients.

Note: All messengers, that support several networks by means of direct connections to them, belong to this section.
Many clients listed here (including Pidgin and all its forks) support multiple IM networks via libpurple. The number of networks supported by these clients is very large but they (like any multiprotocol clients) usually have very limited or no support for network-specific features.

Console
BarnOwl — Ncurses-based chat client with support for the Zephyr, AIM, Jabber, IRC, and Twitter protocols.
http://barnowl.mit.edu/ || barnowl
Bitlbee — IRC client that provides a gateway to popular chat networks (XMPP, MSN, Yahoo, AIM, ICQ and Twitter).
http://bitlbee.org/ || bitlbee
CenterIM — Fork of CenterICQ, a text mode menu- and window-driven IM interface.
http://centerim.org/ || centerim
Finch — Ncurses-based chat client that uses libpurple and supports all its protocols.
http://developer.pidgin.im/wiki/Using%20Finch || finch
naim — Ncurses chat client with support for AOL, ICQ, IRC and the Lily CMC.
http://naim.n.ml.org/ || naim
pork — Programmable, ncurses-based AIM and IRC client that mostly looks and feels like ircII.
http://dev.ojnk.net/ || pork
Graphical
Carrier — Pidgin fork providing minor GUI enhancements (formerly FunPidgin).
http://funpidgin.sourceforge.net/ || carrier
Emesene — PyGTK instant messenger for the Windows Live Messenger network, also compatible with Jabber, Facebook and Google Talk.
http://emesene.org/ || emesene
Empathy — GNOME instant messaging client using the Telepathy framework.
http://live.gnome.org/Empathy || empathy
Galaxium Messenger — Messenger application designed for the GNOME desktop.
https://code.google.com/p/galaxium/ || galaxium
Instantbird — Multi-protocol chat client using Mozilla’s XUL and libpurple.
http://instantbird.com/ || instantbird
Kopete — User-friendly IM supporting AIM, ICQ, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo, Jabber, Gadu-Gadu, Novell GroupWise Messenger, and other IM networks. Part of kdenetwork.
http://kopete.kde.org/ || kdenetwork-kopete
KDE Telepathy — KDE instant messaging client using the Telepathy framework. Meant as a replacement for Kopete.
http://community.kde.org/Real-Time_Communication_and_Collaboration/ || kde-telepathy-meta
Licq — Instant messaging client for UNIX supporting multiple protocols (currently ICQ, MSN and Jabber).
http://www.licq.org || licq
Pidgin — Multi-protocol instant messaging client.
http://pidgin.im/ || pidgin pidgin-light
qutIM — Simple and user-friendly IM supporting ICQ, Jabber, Mail.Ru, IRC and VKontakte messaging.
http://qutim.org/ || qutim-stable
XMPP (Jabber)
See also Wikipedia:XMPP and Wikipedia:Comparison of instant messaging clients#XMPP-related features.

Console clients
Freetalk — Console-based Jabber client.
https://gnu.org/s/freetalk/ || freetalk
jabber.el — Minimal Jabber client for Emacs.
http://emacs-jabber.sourceforge.net/ || emacs-jabber
MCabber — Small Jabber console client, includes features: SSL, PGP, MUC, OTR, and UTF8.
http://mcabber.com/ || mcabber
Profanity — A console based Jabber client inspired by Irssi.
http://www.profanity.im/ || profanity
Graphical clients
Gajim — Jabber client written in PyGTK.
https://gajim.org/ || gajim
Jabbim — Jabber client written in PyQt.
http://www.jabbim.com/ || jabbim-svn
Psi — Qt-based Jabber client.
http://psi-im.org/ || psi
Psi+ — Enhanced version of the Psi Jabber client with many new features.
https://code.google.com/p/psi-dev/ || psi-plus-git
Tkabber — Easy to hack feature-rich XMPP client by the author of the ejabberd XMPP server.
http://tkabber.jabber.ru/ || tkabber
Servers
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of XMPP server software.

Prosody — An XMPP server written in the Lua programming language. Prosody is designed to be lightweight and highly extensible. It is licensed under a permissive MIT license.
http://prosody.im/ || prosody
Ejabberd — Jabber server written in Erlang
http://www.ejabberd.im/ || ejabberd
Jabberd2 — An XMPP server written in the C language and licensed under the GNU General Public License. It was inspired by jabberd14.
http://jabberd2.org || jabberd2
IRC clients
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of Internet Relay Chat clients.

Console
BitchX — Console-based IRC client developed from the popular ircII.
http://www.bitchx.org/ || bitchx-git
ERC — Powerful, modular, and extensible IRC client for Emacs.
http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/erc/ || erc-git
ii — Featherweight IRC client, literally tail -f the conversation and echo back your replies to a file.
http://tools.suckless.org/ii || ii
Ircfs — File system interface to IRC written in Limbo.
http://www.ueber.net/code/r/ircfs || not packaged? search in AUR
Irssi — Highly-configurable ncurses-based IRC client.
http://irssi.org/ || irssi
ScrollZ — Advanced IRC client based on ircII.
http://www.scrollz.com/ || scrollz
sic — Extremely simple IRC client, similar to ii.
http://tools.suckless.org/sic || sic
WeeChat — Modular, lightweight ncurses-based IRC client.
http://weechat.org/ || weechat
Graphical
HexChat — Fork of XChat for Linux and Windows.
http://hexchat.github.io/ || hexchat
Konversation — Qt-based IRC client for the KDE desktop.
http://konversation.kde.org/ || konversation
KVIrc — Qt-based IRC client featuring extensive themes support.
http://kvirc.net/ || kvirc
Loqui — GTK+ IRC client with only one dependency: GNet.
https://launchpad.net/loqui || loqui
LostIRC — Simple GTK+ IRC client with tab-autocompletion, multiple server support, logging and others.
http://lostirc.sourceforge.net || lostirc
pcw — Frontend for ii that opens a new terminal for each channel.
https://bitbucket.org/emg/pcw || pcw-hg
Quassel — Modern, cross-platform, distributed IRC client.
http://quassel-irc.org/ || quassel-core quassel-client
Smuxi — Cross-platform IRC client for the GNOME desktop inspired by Irssi.
http://smuxi.org/ || smuxi
XChat — GTK-based IRC client that works on both Linux and Windows.
http://xchat.org/ || xchat
Lan messengers
See also: Comparison of LAN messengers.

iptux — Lan communication software, compatible with IP Messenger.
https://github.com/iptux-src/iptux || iptux
Softphone
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of VoIP software and Wikipedia:List of SIP software.

Clients
Blink — State of the art, easy to use SIP client.
http://www.icanblink.com/ || blink-darcs
Ekiga — VoIP and video conferencing application with full SIP and H.323 support (formerly known as GNOME Meeting).
http://www.ekiga.org/ || ekiga
Empathy — GNOME instant messenger client using the Telepathy framework with SIP support (using the Sofia-SIP library).
https://live.gnome.org/Empathy || empathy
iaxComm — Open source softphone for the Asterisk PBX (using the IAX protocol).
http://iaxclient.sourceforge.net/iaxcomm/ || not packaged? search in AUR
Jitsi — Audio/video SIP VoIP phone and instant messenger written in Java (formerly SIP-Communicator).
https://jitsi.org/ || jitsi
Kiax — Qt-based IAX/2 Softphone.
http://www.forschung-direkt.eu/projects/kiax2/ || kiax
KPhone — Qt SIP User Agent with voice, video and text messaging support.
http://sourceforge.net/projects/kphone/ || not packaged? search in AUR
Linphone — VoIP phone application that allows you to to communicate freely with people over the internet, with voice, video, and text instant messaging.
http://www.linphone.org/ || linphone
Minisip — SIP User Agent with focus on security (supports TLS, end-to-end security, SRTP, MIKEY (DH, PSK, PKE)).
http://www.minisip.org/ || not packaged? search in AUR
Mumble — Voice chat application similar to TeamSpeak.
http://mumble.sourceforge.net/ || mumble
Psi — Qt-based Jabber client which supports video conferencing (since version 0.13).
http://psi-im.org/ || psi psi-plus-git
QuteCom — Softphone which allows you to make free PC to PC video and voice calls, and to integrate all your IM contacts in one place (formerly Wengo Phone).
http://trac.qutecom.org/ || qutecom
SFLPhone — Open-source SIP/IAX2 compatible softphone with PulseAudio support.
http://sflphone.org/ || sflphone
Skype — Popular but proprietary application for high-quality voice communication.
http://www.skype.com/ || skype
TeamSpeak — Proprietary VoIP application with gamers as its target audience.
http://www.teamspeak.com/ || teamspeak3
Twinkle — Qt softphone for VoIP and IM communication using SIP.
http://www.twinklephone.com/ || twinkle
X-Lite — Proprietary freeware VoIP soft phone that uses SIP.
http://www.counterpath.net/x-lite || xlite_bin
Zfone — Softphone application for secure voice communication over the Internet (VoIP), using the ZRTP protocol.
http://zfoneproject.com/ || zfone
Utilities
Gladstone — Educational ITU-T G.729 compliant codec with a GStreamer plugin.
https://gitorious.org/gladstone || gladstone-drizztbsd-git
SIPp — Open source test tool and traffic generator for the SIP protocol.
http://sipp.sourceforge.net/ || sipp
Sipsak — Small command-line tool for developers and administrators of SIP applications.
http://sipsak.org/ || sipsak
News, RSS, and blogs
News aggregators
See also Wikipedia:Comparison of feed aggregators.

Console
Canto — Ncurses RSS aggregator.
http://codezen.org/canto/ || canto
Gnus — Email, NNTP and RSS client for Emacs.
http://gnus.org/ || emacs-gnus-git
Newsbeuter — Ncurses RSS aggregator with layout and keybinding similar to the Mutt email client.
http://newsbeuter.org || newsbeuter
Rawdog — “RSS Aggregator Without Delusions Of Grandeur” that parses RSS/CDF/Atom feeds into a static HTML page of articles in chronological order.
http://offog.org/code/rawdog.html || rawdog
Snownews — Text mode RSS news reader.
http://kiza.kcore.de/software/snownews/ || snownews
Graphical
Akregator — News aggregator for KDE, part of kdepim.
http://kde.org/applications/internet/akregator/ || kdepim-akregator
Blam — Simple newsreader for GNOME written in C Sharp.
https://git.gnome.org/browse/blam || blam
BlogBridge — Excellent Java-based aggregator, which gives users the option to synchronize their feeds across multiple computers.
http://blogbridge.com || blogbridge
Liferea — GTK+ news aggregator for online news feeds and weblogs.
http://liferea.sourceforge.net || liferea
RSS Guard — Very tiny RSS and ATOM news reader developed using Qt framework.
https://bitbucket.org/skunkos/rssguard || rssguard
RSSOwl — Powerful aggregator for RSS and Atom feeds, written in Java using Eclipse Rich Client Platform and SWT as a widget toolkit.
http://boreal.rssowl.org || rssowl
Thunderbird — Email client from Mozilla which also functions as a pretty nice news aggregator.
http://www.mozilla.org/thunderbird/ || thunderbird
Tickr (formerly News) — GTK-based RSS Reader that displays feeds as a smooth scrolling line on your Desktop, as known from TV stations.
http://newsrssticker.com/ || tickr
Urssus — Cross platform GUI news aggregator.
https://code.google.com/p/urssus/ || urssus
QuiteRSS — RSS/Atom feed reader written on Qt/С++.
http://quiterss.org/ || quiterss
Podcast clients
gPodder — A podcast client and feed aggregator (GTK+ and CLI interface).
http://gpodder.org/ || gpodder3
Marrie — A simple podcast client that runs on the Command Line Interface.
https://github.com/rafaelmartins/marrie/ || marrie-git
PodCastXDL — A simple podcast Downloader for the terminal.
https://github.com/levi0x0/PodCastXDL || podcastxdl-git
Vocal — Simple Podcast Client for the Modern Desktop (GTK+).
https://launchpad.net/vocal || vocal-bzr
Usenet newsreaders & newsgrabbers
Some email clients also support NNTP. This section mainly lists NNTP-only client.

See also: Wikipedia:List_of_Usenet_newsreaders, Wikipedia:Comparison_of_Usenet_newsreaders.

lottanzb — A SABnzbd+ (Usenet binary downloader) GUI front-end written in PyGTK
http://www.lottanzb.org/ || lottanzb
nn — Alternative more user-friendly(curses-based) Usenet newsreader for UNIX.
http://www.nndev.org/ || nn
NZBGet — CLI Utility to grab Usenet binary file using .nzb files.
http://nzbget.sourceforge.net/ || nzbget
pan — A GTK2 Usenet newsreader that’s good at both text and binaries.
http://pan.rebelbase.com/ || pan
slrn — An open source text-based news client.
http://www.slrn.org/ || slrn
tin — A cross-platform threaded NNTP and spool based UseNet newsreader.
http://tin.org/ || tin
trn — A text-based Threaded Usenet newsreader.
http://trn.sourceforge.net/ || trn
XPN — A graphical newsreader use PyGTK.
http://xpn.altervista.org/index-en.html || xpn
xrn — Usenet newsreader for X Window System.
http://www.mit.edu/people/jik/software/xrn.html || xrn
Blog software
See also Wikipedia:Blog software and Wikipedia:List of content management systems.

WordPress — An easy to setup and administer FLOSS content management system featuring a strong and vibrant community with thousands of plugins and themes.
http://wordpress.org/ || wordpress
Drupal — An open source content management platform powering millions of websites and applications. It is built, used, and supported by an active and diverse community of people around the world.
http://drupal.org/ || drupal
Nanoblogger — A small weblog engine written in Bash for the command line. It uses common UNIX tools such as cat, grep, and sed to create static HTML content. It is not mantained anymore.
http://nanoblogger.sourceforge.net/ || nanoblogger
Jekyll — A static blog engine, written in Ruby, which supports Markdown, textile and other formats.
http://jekyllrb.com/ || ruby-jekyll
Microblogging clients
See also Wikipedia:List of Twitter services and applications.

Birdie — A beautiful Twitter client for GNU/Linux, currently not under active development.
http://birdieapp.github.io/ || birdie
Choqok — Microblogging client for KDE that supports Twitter.com, Identi.ca and opendesktop.org services.
http://choqok.gnufolks.org/ || choqok
Corebird — Native Gtk+ Twitter client for the Linux desktop.
http://corebird.baedert.org/ || corebird-git
Gwibber — GTK-based microblogging client with support for Facebook, Identi.ca, Twitter, Flickr, Foursquare, Sina and Sohu.
http://gwibber.com/ || gwibber
Hotot — Lightweight and open source microblogging client with support for Twitter and Identi.ca and integration with various image sharing services and URL shorteners (discontinued).
http://hotot.org || hotot
Pino — Simple and fast client for Twitter and Identi.ca written in Vala.
http://pino-app.appspot.com/ || pino
Polly — Linux Twitter client designed for multiple columns of multiple accounts.
https://launchpad.net/polly/ || polly
Qwit — Cross-platform client for Twitter using the Qt toolkit.
http://code.google.com/p/qwit/ || qwit
ttytter — Easily scriptable twitter client written in Perl.
http://www.floodgap.com/software/ttytter/ || ttytter
Turpial — Multi-interface Twitter client written in Python.
http://turpial.org.ve/ || turpial-git
tyrs — Simple client for Twitter and Identi.ca supporting virtually all its features with nice console UI (unmaintained).
http://tyrs.nicosphere.net/ [dead link 2014-07-17] || tyrs
turses — Twitter client for the console based off tyrs with major improvements.
http://turses.rtfd.org/ || turses
Pastebin clients
See also Wikipedia:Pastebin.

Pastebin services are often used to paste information into IRC channels to help with troubleshooting. There are services for both text (e.g. bpaste.net, pastie.org, codepad.org) and images (e.g. imgur.com, picpaste.com). Pastebin clients allow you to post directy from the cli without using a web browser.

Tip: The sprunge and ix pastebins can be accessed directly via curl, which should return a link to the paste:
| curl -F ‘sprunge=<-' http://sprunge.us

2>&1 | curl -F ‘f:1=<-' ix.io
There is also a sprunge plugin for oh-my-zsh (a configuration tool for the Zsh command shell).
Warning: Do not use pastebin.com. It appears to be the most popular site but it is slow, full of adverts, formats the text badly (it will mess up your code) and many people can not even open the site due to aggressive spam filters.
codepad-git — A codepad.org pastebin client written in python.
http://www.codepad.org || codepad-git
Elmer — Pastebin client similar to wgetpaste and curlpaste, except written in Perl and usable with wget or curl. Servers: codepad.org, rafb.me, sprunge.us.
https://github.com/sudokode/elmer || elmer
Fb-client — Client for the paste.xinu.at pastebin.
http://paste.xinu.at || fb-client
Gist — Command-line interface for the gist.github.com pastebin service.
http://github.com/defunkt/gist || gist
Haste — Universal pastebin tool, written in Haskell. Servers: hpaste.org, paste2.org, pastebin.com and others.
http://hackage.haskell.org/package/haste || ruby-haste ruby-haste-git
Hg-paste — Pastebin extension for Mercurial which can send diffs to various pastebin websites for easy sharing. Servers: dpaste.com and dpaste.org.
http://bitbucket.org/sjl/hg-paste || hg-paste
imgur — A CLI client which can upload image to imgur.com image sharing service.
http://imgur.com/apps || imgur
Ix — Client for the ix.io pastebin.
http://ix.io || ix
Npaste-client — Client for the npaste.de pastebin.
http://npaste.de || npaste-client
Pastebinit — Really small Python script that acts as a Pastebin client. Servers: pastie.org, paste.kde.org, paste.debian.net, paste.ubuntu.com and others (for a full list see pastebinit -l).
http://launchpad.net/pastebinit || pastebinit
Uppity — The pastebin client with an attitude.
https://github.com/Kiwi/Uppity || uppity-git
Vim-gist — Vim script for gist.github.com.
http://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=2423 || vim-gist
Vim-paster — Vim plugin to paste to any pastebin service using curl.
http://eugeneciurana.com/site.php?page=tools || vim-paster
Wgetpaste — Bash script that automates pasting to a number of pastebin services. Servers: pastebin.ca, codepad.org, dpaste.com and pastebin.osuosl.org.
http://wgetpaste.zlin.dk/ || wgetpaste
Bitcoin
See the main article: Bitcoin.

Armory — Bitcoin client with features such as support for multiple wallets, importing keys and backups.
https://github.com/etotheipi/BitcoinArmory || armory-git
Bitcoin — Official tool to manage Bitcoins, a P2P currency.
http://bitcoin.org/ || bitcoin-daemon bitcoin-qt
Electrum — An easy to use Bitcoin client.
http://electrum.org/ || electrum
MultiBit — A lightweight Bitcoin desktop client powered by the BitCoinJ library.
https://multibit.org/ || multibit
Referensi :
1.http://unsweb.aucegypt.edu/UNSWEB2/NetIntro.htm
2.https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/List_of_applications/Internet
3.Karena ini diambil dari blog 'bukan orang kita' author translate pastinya dari https://translate.google.com/#en/id/
 

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